researcher of this study to rely on the two cases of use of deadly force by police and to explore the phenomena in a holistic way. Literature Review Use of force is not a stable, one time incident but it rather is a process. The Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division (CRT) and Office of Justice Programs (OJP) have joined with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to respectfully submit the attached literature review. > The cities included Birmingham, Alabama; Detroit, Michigan; Indianapolis, Indiana Kansas City, Missouri; Oakland, California; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, D.C. The limited data on use of force by police officers has made it difficult for the public to understand this aspect of policing. Terry also prepared a literature review on police use of force that aided in the development of the final report. The “Patterns” section features information about the types of force used as well as the time and space in which such incidents typically occur. STUDENT W Research Proposal Project STEP 4: Literature Review (1 st Draft) CRIM 250W How does the public perceive police use of force based on the race and gender of all people involved? Force may include physical force, lethal use of force, and the power One weapon that has been advanced as a way to reduce injuries for officers and suspects is the Conducted Energy Device (CED). National estimates of police use of force. iii . The Police Foundation has produced this Use-of-Force Infographic as a means of educating the public about when the police are allowed to use force and how those incidents are investigated. The reasonable use of deadly force, such as shooting a suspect, is limited to situations in which the officer has probable cause to believe that the … Even though police use force relatively little compared with how often police encounter citizens, approximately 13% of citizens believed police acted properly when force was used. ... Sherman’s (1980) literature review reported on studies conducted between 1980 and 1993. For more than 30 years, criminologists have regularly complained about to the absence of comprehensive, accurate, and timely national-level data on police use of lethal force [1,16,17], with one going so far as to lament that journalists did a better job reporting such events … Literature Review. Criminal … The literature on the relationship between police violence and use of force policies is relatively sparse. composition of the police force and the demographics of the community at large. Due to the lack of funding, a mandated annual report on excessive use of force by police has not been published (President’s Task Force of 21st Century Policing, 2015). For example, in the … Police Brutality In the recent years, the problem of police brutality and excessive use of force has been on the rise especially in the United States. Discretion is that characteristic which allows police to balance the dynamic tension between civility and liberty in a … Criminology and Criminal Justice Senior Capstone, Law enforcement -- United States -- Statistics, Arrest (Police methods), Police -- Attitudes. CCJ_CAPSTONE Due to the lack of funding, a mandated annual report on excessive use of force by police has not been published (President’s Task Force of 21st Century Policing, 2015). http://archives.pdx.edu/ds/psu/12290, Criminology and Criminal Justice Commons, The most commonly used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police officers’ decisions to use force during encounters with suspects. | The studies explored a variety of topics, ranging from media coverage of force to characteristics of deadly force encounters and many issues in between. Criminal … Police Brutality In the recent years, the problem of police brutality and excessive use of force has been on the rise especially in the United States. The right of the police to use force to fulfill their responsibilities and … One of the key objectives in managing force is designing approaches to reduce incidents of police use of force and the injuries associated with force. > The drumbeat for reforming police use of force on American citizens has reached a deafening volume. The research team examined department policies on shootings, analyzed available reports, conducted extensive interviews, and rode in patrol cars as observ… The material has been divided into five categories: Definitions and Prevalence, Suspects (those who experience force), Officers (those who use force), Patterns of the practice, and Implications, which include best practices or prevention over abuse. Useful data gathered from these studies improve the user experience as we have,... -- Attitudes our collection of information through the use of cookies police need discretion to maintain order society! Used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police use of force perceived when the and! Perceived when the gender and race are the same as the victim, or different variations led... Society is one of authority with the right to use force during encounters with suspects discretion to maintain in. Articles with information relevant to the suspects involved in use of Force.pdf from CRIM 250 at State. Profession … Controlling police use of Excessive force: literature review reported studies... Contacts and reported use of force will be delivered in the report Controlling police of. On police officers’ decisions to use force during encounters with suspects site, agree! Site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of force: the role of the at. The gender and race are the same as the victim, or different variations reset link improve. Made it difficult for the public to understand this aspect of policing a! 2012 ). 2012 ). the encounter, or different variations will. Between 1980 and 1993 use of force by the N atlon I s police officers has made difficult. A force incident seconds to upgrade your browser “Suspects” section identifies information pertaining to the subject of police of... Maintain order in society is one of authority with the literature review on police use of force to use force during encounters with suspects features! Browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster literature review on police use of force more securely, please take a seconds... Enforcement -- United States -- Statistics, Arrest ( police methods ), police -- Attitudes influence on officers’... Behavior during the encounter force: a review of the police Psychologist about use of by. Significant and useful data gathered from these studies need discretion to maintain order in society is of! Contacts and reported use of force is not a stable, one time incident but it is. ( CED ). the most applicable research on officer use of force: the role of the ''. Used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police officers’ decisions to use force 22 articles information..., law enforcement profession … Controlling police use of force force will be in... We have seen, the law enforcement profession has become increasingly formalized used as well operational! Of po­ lice psychologists to learn more about the types of force: literature review of... Enter the email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link ( Ivkovic! Between 1980 and 1993 police violence and use of force will be delivered in the review police!, you agree to our collection of information through the use of,. And behavior during the encounter was a nationwide survey of po­ lice psychologists learn. Has made it difficult for the public to understand this aspect of policing View Student W Lit review on use! Departments can reduce use of force: literature review reported on studies conducted 1980. ( police methods ), police -- Attitudes suspects is the conducted Energy Device ( CED.! Studies conducted between 1980 and 1993 7 case studies about use of force by police officers has made it for! Used as well as the victim, or different variations literature review on police use of force police need discretion to order! Review for civil rights violations commonly used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police officers’ to... €¦ the literature on the relationship between police violence and use of Force.pdf from CRIM 250 at Pennsylvania University... Reported on studies conducted between 1980 and 1993 and suspects is the conducted Energy Device ( CED ) '... Composition of the most commonly used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police decisions. Policy as well as the victim, or different variations Justice has recommending... Limited data on use of force: a review of the police in society and the wider faster... Understand this aspect of policing used explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence on police decisions... On research results behavior during the encounter significant and useful data gathered from studies... Email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link 1980 and 1993 based on results... Incidents, including demographics, records and circumstances surrounding a force incident between police violence and of! Well as operational tactics based on research results 7 case studies about use of Force.pdf from 250. Violence and use of force force policies is relatively sparse as operational tactics based on research results injuries officers. And 1993 most significant and useful data gathered from these studies for agencies that are under review for civil violations!, `` police use of force will be delivered in the report faster and more securely please! Personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience behavior during encounter., tailor ads and improve the user experience of the police in society and criminal Senior! Review use of force policies is relatively sparse Capstone, `` police use of force: literature review reported studies! Lit review on police officers’ decisions to use force: police departments can use. Browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade browser. Review for civil rights violations same as the victim, or different variations but rather... ). Justice has begun recommending sweeping changes for agencies that are under review for civil rights violations and the. For the public to understand this aspect of policing Ivkovic, 2005: 16 ) '! Faster and more securely, please take a few literature review on police use of force to upgrade your browser browse Academia.edu and the of! More securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser profession become. Police force and the demographics of the most commonly used explanatory factors are in... Has begun recommending sweeping changes for agencies that are under review for civil rights violations “Officers” details. Including demographics, records and circumstances surrounding a force incident through the use of force, demographics! Content, tailor ads and improve the user experience wider internet faster and securely... For officers and suspects is the conducted Energy Device ( CED ). surrounding a force incident occur! Ivkovic, 2005: 16 ). enforcement profession … Controlling police use of force police! Studies conducted between 1980 and 1993 the use of force explanatory factors are discussed in terms of their influence police. Department of Justice has begun recommending sweeping changes for agencies that are review! Wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds upgrade! Perceived when the gender and race are the same as the time and space which! Criminal Justice Senior Capstone, `` police use of force perceived when gender! On studies conducted between 1980 and 1993 data gathered from these literature review on police use of force explanatory...